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48                  HISTORY OF PERSIA
Caliph's public acknowledgment of his relationship with
himself, and he was appointed Governor of Basra, where
he ruled the turbulent Arabs with a rod of iron. Later
on Kufa was added to his administration, and there- he
introduced a reign of terror for the purpose of crushing
conspiracies that boded ill for the future of the Omayyad
dynasty. The Arab chroniclers state that no viceroy
ever enjoyed such powers as Ziad, who ruled from the
Euphrates to the Indus and Jaxartes, and maintained a
court modelled on that of the Great King.
Moslem Progress in the East.—During the Caliphate
of Muavia the yoke of the Arabs was fixed more securely
on the East Herat, which had rebelled in A.H. 41 (662),
was stormed, and so was Kabul two years later. Ghazni,
Balkh, and Kandahar were visited by Moslem armies,
In A.H. 54 (674) the Oxus was crossed and Bokhara
captured, and in A.H, 56 (676) Samarcand fell to the
Moslems, who strengthened their position up to the
Jaxartes on the north and to the Indus on the south. In
short, they became successors of Alexander the Great.
From Basra and Kufa Ziad governed Persia through
his sons. The province of Khorasan, which at this period
comprised the Moslem empire east of the Lut as far
as the confines of India, was divided into four great
districts, with their centres at Nishapur, Merv, Herat,
and Balkh respectively. Of these cities only the first-
named lies within the limits of modern Iran. It was at
this time, too, that Arab colonies were planted in Khorasan,
traces of which still survive, although the Mongol inva-
sions shattered their power. I have, indeed, myself
frequently come across small bodies of Arab tribesmen,
and a regiment, termed the Arab va Ajam is still recruited
in the Shahrud district.
The Power and Prosperity of Muavia.—Muavia cer-
tainly ranks as one of the great Caliphs. Owing to his
sagacity, his hold on Damascus was never seriously
threatened, and he converted it into the magnificent
capital of the Caliphate. His successful campaigns to
the confines of India have been referred to, and he was^
on the whole equally successful in the West, attacking